Clojure Strings Are Sequence

As a newbie to Clojure, I am sure all of us will meet one problem when dealing with string. Let’s say we have a long string.

"This is a long string !"
-> "This is a long string !"    // clojure will give us back this

What if we want to remove all spaces ? Let’s say we’ll solve this by filter through the text and apply a function to check if it’s a space. That’s simple.

In JavaScript, we’ll probably write something like this:

var str = "This is a long string !";
str.split("").filter(function(c) { return c !== " "}).join("")
// "Thisisalongstring!"

Since Array.prototype.filter is a method for array, so firstly we turn string into array by using split method. After filtering through it we will join it back.

What if we try to do this in Clojure:

(str (filter #(not= % \space) "This is a long string"))
-> "clojure.lang.LazySeq@f3440d65"

Let’s see why this doesn’t work in Clojure and find a solution for it. In Clojure, strings are sequences of characters. And Clojure characters are Java characters:

-> \e
-> newline

Let’s concat some characters using the str function:

(str \c \space \l \space \j)
-> "c l j"

As I said, strings are sequences of characters. So when we call sequences function in Clojure on strings, we will get a sequence(consistency!). Let’s first filter through the string and remove the space.

(filter #(not= % \space) "This is a long string")
-> (\T \h \i \s \i \s \a \l \o \n \g \s \t \r \i \n \g)

We can see at first strings are turned into sequences and get mapped to apply our function #(not= % \space). Indeed we can see what does it looks like:

(seq "This is a long string")
-> (\T \h \i \s \space \i \s \space \a \space \l \o \n \g \space \s \t \r \i \n \g)

Since we know how Clojure str works, it’s very tempting for us to do:

(str (filter #(not= % \space) "This is a long string"))
-> "clojure.lang.LazySeq@f3440d65"

The problem is this won’t work since we are passing a sequence of characters to the function str instead of strings or characters.

Solution 1

The possible solution to this is using the apply function. Let’s see how apply works:

(apply f seq)

apply unroll the parameter seq and apply function f to them (Note: apply can accept one more optional parameter.). Seems like we can solve our problem now:

(apply str (filter #(not= % \space) "This is a long string"))
-> "Thisisalongstring"

Solution 2

Another solution is to use clojure.string/join which is a wrapper for (apply str args).

(clojure.string/join "" (filter #(not= % \space) "This is a long string"))
-> "Thisisalongstring"

Boom !


Clojure strings are sequences of characters and Clojure characters are Java characters. When a sequence function is use on string, we have to be careful on the result which is probably a list. To deal with that, we can always use the great apply or it’s wrapper for (apply str ...) - clojure.string/join.

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